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At the dawn of capitalism, at the beginning of the 16th century, individual capitalists owned and operated plants and farms. Or groups of people - partnerships.

They usually directly participated in the production. They were personally present at the plant, giving orders to workers, cursing and even pounding them.

Today, the owners and managers of most production companies are not individuals. Now people are buying shares and owning enterprises together.

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💎 But stock ownership does not make you a capitalist in the classical sense of the word. If you own 300 of Volkswagen’s 300 million shares, this does not mean that you can fly to a plant, for example, in Wolfsburg, in Germany, and begin to give instructions to “your” employees in your “own” factory regarding one millionth parts of their working time.

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⚠ Ownership and management of enterprises in large companies are divided.

⚠ In corporations, owners have limited liability for them. If something goes wrong in the organization, the shareholders will lose only the money invested in their shares, and that’s all over.

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In the days of Adam Smith, company owners bore UNLIMITED RESPONSIBILITY. If things went wrong, they had to sell their personal property in order to pay debts, otherwise they would end up in jail.

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Adam Smith opposed the principle of limited liability. He argued that those who manage companies without owning them play with "other people's money." And they will not be as vigilant in management as those who risk everything that they have.

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💎 The principle of limited liability reduces the risks of the entrepreneur, unties his hands, allows for risky changes and pushes progress forward.

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In addition, today, regardless of ownership, companies are organized in completely different ways than during Smith's time.

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In the 16-18th century, most enterprises were small and had only one production site with a simple command structure. The team consisted of several craftsmen, rank-and-file workers and, possibly, a ranger.

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Today, many companies are huge. They employ tens of thousands and even millions of workers around the world.

Walmart has approximately 2.1 million employees, and about 1.8 million at McDonald's, including all franchises.

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The internal structure of companies now - the devil will break his head.

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